Under the Aztecs, why was Tenochtitlán a site of encounter? Download Primary Source Set: Tenochtitlan 

Tenochtitlán was a site of encounter because. as the capital of the Aztec Empire, it was a center of political and military power. The Aztecs required conquered city-states to pay tribute periodically to Tenochtitlán. Receipt of this tribute enriched the Aztec state and stimulated markets in Tenochtitlán. The Aztec ruler and state officials engaged in diplomacy with rulers and important foreigners.


How did world religions change and spread during the early modern period? How did Sikhism begin, change and spread during the early modern period? Download Primary Source Set: Sikhism 

This inquiry set focuses the beliefs and practices of Sikhism, the youngest and fifth largest world religion, with special attention to two moments: the establishment of Sikhism under Guru Nanak in the fifteenth century and the transformation of Sikhism under Guru Gobind Singh in the late seventeenth century.

Was Slavery Always Racial?

Was slavery always racial? Download Primary Source Set Source: Was Slavery Always Racial?

This set explores slavery on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century, with a focus on the changing concepts of what made a person a slave and what kinds of people could be enslaved. In the medieval Mediterranean, slavery was not based on race but on religion. Slavery became associated with race and skin color in the early modern Caribbean and Atlantic colonies.

South and Southeast Asia

How did Indian monks, nuns, merchants, travelers, and empires from what is now modern India and other parts of South Asia spread religious ideas and practices and cultural styles of art and architecture to Central and Southeast Asia? Download Primary Source Set: South and Southeast Asia

Thisset uses two cultural productions -the Ramayana and representations of Buddhist and Hindu religious figures -to give students tangible evidence of the transmission of religious ideas and practices and cultural s

Christianity & Exchange (Guadalupe)

What were effects of exchanges at Tenochtitlán / Mexico City in the 16th through 18th centuries? Download Primary Source Set: Christianity & Exchange (Guadalupe)

The Virgin of Guadalupe is an image and a religious practice that shows the synthesis of Nahua/Mesoamerican and European Catholic religions in colonial Mexico City and the Spanish colony of New Spain.

The Mongol Empire

How did the Mongol Empire destroy states and increase the interconnection of Afroeurasia? Download Primary Source Set: The Mongol Empire

This inquiry set features primary sources that demonstrate two main characteristics of the Mongol Empire: violent conquest and expansion of international trade and cultural exchange.

Baghdad Interactions

What were the multiple ways people of different cultures interacted at the sites of encounter, such as Baghdad? Download Primary Source Set: Baghdad Interactions

As the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, Baghdad was a site of encounter that attracted people, products, and ideas from all over Afroeurasia. People from many ethnic groups and religions coexisted in the caliphate.

Expansion and Fall of the Roman Empire

How was Rome a site of encounter? Download Primary Source Set: Expansion and Fall of the Roman Empire

This set examines the city of Rome, as the center of the Roman Empire, from 100 BCE through 200 CE, as a site of encounter, where people from multiple cultures met, interacted, and exchanged products, ideas and technologies. To spark student interest, most of the sources in the set are related to gladiatorial games and other public entertainments such as chariot racing and theatre.

Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World - Majorca

Majorca was ruled by the MuslimAlmohads until its conquest byJames I, King of the Crownof Aragon,in 1229. Its greatest importance was as a trading and shipping center for thewestern Mediterraneanand the Maghribi ports, which controlled the gold trade from Mali and West Africa. Once the Majorcan base was established, Catalan merchants and shippers not only gained access to those markets, but also helped develop the maps, ships, and navigational technology which gave Mediterranean shippers access to the Atlantic Ocean.